Impact of satellite-based lake surface observations on the initial state of HIRLAM. Part I: Evaluation of remotelysensed lake surface water temperature observations

Publication details

  • Journal: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, vol. 66, 2014
  • Publisher: Munksgaard Forlag
  • International Standard Numbers:
    • Printed: 0280-6495
    • Electronic: 1600-0870
  • Link:

ake Surface Water Temperature (LSWT) observations are used to improve the lake surface state in the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM), a three-dimensional numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. In this paper, satellite-derived LSWT observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) are evaluated against in-situ measurements collected by the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) for a selection of large- to medium-size lakes during the open-water season. Data assimilation of these LSWT observations into the HIRLAM is in the paper Part II. Results show a good agreement between MODIS and in-situ measurements from 22 Finnish lakes, with a mean bias of −1.13°C determined over five open-water seasons (2007–2011). Evaluation of MODIS during an overlapping period (2007–2009) with the AATSR-L2 product currently distributed by the European Space Agency (ESA) shows a mean (cold) bias error of −0.93°C for MODIS and a warm mean bias of 1.08°C for AATSR-L2. Two additional LSWT retrieval algorithms were applied to produce more accurate AATSR products. The algorithms use ESA's AATSR-L1B brightness temperature product to generate new L2 products: one based on Key et al. (1997) and the other on Prata (2002) with a finer resolution water mask than used in the creation of the AATSR-L2 product distributed by ESA. The accuracies of LSWT retrievals are improved with the Key and Prata algorithms with biases of 0.78°C and −0.11°C, respectively, compared to the original AATSR-L2 product (3.18°C).