A controlled intervention study to improve antibiotic use in a Russian paediatric hospital

  • Tore G Abrahamsen
  • Stein Erik Andresen
  • Ola Haug
  • Michaela Lelek
  • Signe H Ringertz


  • Journal: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, vol. 31, p. 478–483, 2008
  • Internasjonale standardnumre:
    • Trykt: 0924-8579
    • Elektronisk: 1872-7913
  • Lenke:

A controlled intervention study was performed in a paediatric hospital in Russia to improve antibiotic use and to see whether improvements persisted. During October–December 2002, clinical and microbiological data, antibiotic use, costs and outcome were recorded at two wards for gastrointestinal infections (GIIs) and two wards for respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of infections were developed and implemented at one ward for GIIs and one ward for RTIs in 2003. The other two wards served as controls. The same data were recorded during the same 3-month periods in 2003 and 2004. At the intervention ward, the percentage of patients with GII who received antibiotics decreased from 94% in 2002 to 41% in 2003, but increased to 73% in 2004. In RTI patients these percentages were 90% in 2002, 53% in 2003 and 83% in 2004. The proportions of patients who received antibiotics in 2004 were still lower than in 2002: risk difference (RD) = 0.217 (P ≤ 0.001) in GIIs and RD = 0.073 (P = 0.013) in RTIs. From 2002 to 2004 there was a decrease in cephalosporin use (P = 0.021) and an increase in penicillin use (P = 0.032) in pneumonia. There was no difference in mortality, duration of fever or duration of hospital stay between the intervention and control wards. Antibiotic use could be halved without compromising the quality of patient care, but 1 year after the intervention the use of antibiotics approached pre-intervention levels. Strategies to sustain the effect of interventions are needed.