Syversveen, Anne Randi; Skorstad, Arne; Soleng, Harald Heimtun; Røe, Per; Tveranger, Jan
Traditionally fault impact on fluid flow is included by assigning transmissibility multipliers to flow simulation grid cell faces co-located with the fault plane (Manzocchi et al. 1999). A new method, called Fault Facies modelling (Tveranger et al. 2004, 2005), captures fault impact by considering faults as deformed rock volumes rather than simple planes. Architectures and petrophysical properties of these deformed volumes (i.e. fault zones) are linked to a range of factors such as lithology, host rock petrophysical properties, tectonic regime, orientation, magnitude, and distribution of stress, as well as the burial depth at the time of faulting. By understanding these links and identifying bounding values for distributions and parameters, fault zone architectures and properties, as well as uncertainties attached to these, can be forecasted.
The fault facies approach allows 3D features such as anisotropic permeability fields, capillarity effects and tortuosity of flow paths inside the fault zone to be explicitly represented in the reservoir models. Furthermore, on the simulation grid scale, flow between cells on opposite sides of faults, as well as any uncertainty attached to this, can be estimated a priori rather than set deterministically a posteriori using history matching.
The paper compares fluid flow behaviour of conventional transmissibility multiplier-type fault property models and fault facies type models through a series of simple tests. The study demonstrates that the fault facies concept is a technically feasible methodology that represents an alternative or supplement to standard industrial fault modelling methods.